Tuesday, April 15, 2008

Inductive Reasoning

§Form of logic that makes conclusion probable, not certain as in deductive reasoning.
§Uses several specific examples to draw a general conclusionUsed scientifically

Modus Tollens

§“Denying the consequence”
Ex: Premise: If Michael were a really good friend, he would lend me his car for the weekend.
Premise: Michael refuses to lend me his car for the weekend.
Conclusion: Therefore, Michael is not a really good friend.

Modus Ponens

§“Affirming the antecedent”
Ex: Premise: If I have prepared thoroughly for the final exam, then I will do well.
Premise: I prepared thoroughly for the exam
Conclusion: Therefore, I will do well on the exam.

Brerakdown of deductive logic

žThe first premise, usually referred to as the minor premise states two properties:
One property can be classified in the category of the larger property (All men are mortal)—all men fall into the category of mortal
žThe second premise, usually referred to as the minor premise, states that a third property is a member of the first category (Socrates is a man)
žThe conclusion directly follows the minor premise in that because the third property is a member of the first category, it must also possess the quality of that category (therefore, Socrates is mortal)

Example of Deductive Logic

§Premise/Reason: All men are mortal
§Premise/Reason: Socrates is a man
§Conclusion: Therefore, Socrates is mortal
§By accepting that the premises are true, the conclusion is necessarily true
§Conversely, deductive reasoning works only if the premises are accepted as true
§The above structure is referred to as a syllogism

Deductive Reasoning

§Most commonly associated with logic
§Applying general to specific
§Used with the principle that as long as the supporting reasons (premises) are true, the conclusion is true
§Most absolute kind of reasoning

Essay Requirements

§6-10 pages
§6 sources—including the work you are starting with
§MLA format
§Works Cited
§TitleInclude not only support for your point of view but the opposing argument

R/A Topic 4

§Research the Women’s Movement beginning in the nineteenth century. Trace it through the sixties and include key progressions in women’s rights. Then argue whether women can overcome beauty ideals. Use Naomi Wolf’s “The Beauty Myth” as support for your argument.
§Option 2—Answer the above topic, and argue that Nora’s beauty is one of the reasons she is not taken seriously in A Doll’s House.

You may also include "Hills Like White Elephants" and argue that the man wanted the abortion because he feared the change in the girl's gender role--from girl to woman/mother

R/A Topic 3

§Using “Fatherless America” as your starting point, calculate what the rate of single parent households (headed by women) will be in ten years. Determine what the impact on society will be if your projected figure comes true.

R/A Topic 2

§Research the formation of male gender identity and argue whether “cross-gender behavior” in children determines they will be gay. Use “My Son Doesn’t Act Like a Boy” to support your reasoning. You may organize your essay as exemplification.

R/A Topic 1

Research several actual soldiers’ stories from the Vietnam War. Using your research and Tim O’Brien’s “The Things They Carried,” write an essay comparing the soldiers in the story with the experiences from actual soldiers. Then using research on what actual soldiers’ return and reintegration to society was like, predict what some of the characters’ return from Vietnam would be like